194.Hashimoto Thyroiditis(桥本甲状腺炎)

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Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as lymphocytic thyroiditis or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, is a subtype of autoimmune thyroiditis. It is one of the most common thyroid disorders.

Radiographic features

【Hashimoto Thyroiditis 桥本甲状腺炎】

桥本甲状腺炎,又叫淋巴细胞性甲状腺炎或慢性自免性甲状腺炎,是自免性甲状腺炎的一种亚型。是最常见的甲状腺疾病之一。

Ultrasound

It is difficult to reliably sonographically differentiate Hashimoto thyroiditis from other thyroid pathology. Ultrasound features can be variable depending on the severity and phase of disease :

diffusely enlarged thyroid gland with a heterogeneous echotexture is a common sonographic presentation;

the presence of hypoechoic micronodules (1-6 mm)with surrounding echogenic septations is also considered to have a relatively high positive predictive values .This appearance may be described as pseudonodular or a giraffe pattern;

colour Doppler study usually shows normal or decreased flow, but occasionally there might be hypervascularity similar to a thyroid inferno;

prominent reactive cervical nodes may be present, especially in level VI, but they have normal morphologic features;

patients are at higher risk for papillary thyroid carcinoma, so a discrete nodule should be considered for biopsy;

In some situations, large nodules may be present, which may be referred to as nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis 10.

影像表现:

超声:很难在声像图上鉴别桥本甲状腺炎与其他甲状腺疾病。超声表现取决于疾病的严重程度与时期。

-甲状腺弥漫性增大、回声不均质是常见的超声表现。

-低回声微结节(1-6mm)伴周围回声分隔,也考虑较高的阳性值。该征象称为“假结节征”或“长颈鹿征”。

-彩色多普勒超声显示血流信号正常或减低,但有时也会有丰富的血流信号,类似“甲状腺火海征”。

-主要的表现可能为颈部结节,特别是在6级病变中,但甲状腺形态正常。

-桥本甲状腺炎的患者有患乳头状甲状腺癌的高风险,因此单发孤立结节应考虑活检。

某些情况下会表现为大结节,可能会是结节性桥本甲状腺炎。

Nuclear medicine

Radioactive iodine

early stages: may show increased uptake

late stages: single or multiple areas of reduced uptake (cold spots)

核医学

放射性碘

-早期:可表现为高度浓聚

-晚期:单发或多发浓聚减低(冷结节)

Pathology

There is autoimmunity to the thyroid gland which bears both humoral-and cell-mediated features. This is followed by lymphocytic

infiltration of the thyroid gland with lymphoid follicles replacing thyroid follicles. This may affect the thyroid gland in either a diffuse or focal manner. Cell populations include:

lymphocytic aggregates

transformed follicular cells

(Askanazy/oxyphilic/Hurthle cells)

Later stages show superadded fibrosis.

病理表现:甲状腺是自身调节的腺体,受激素水平和细胞介导通路的调节。由于淋巴细胞的浸润,导致淋巴滤泡取代了正常的甲状腺滤泡。以弥漫或局灶性的方式侵犯甲状腺。细胞群包括:

-淋巴细胞聚集。

-滤泡细胞转运(Askanazy/亲氧/Hurthle细胞)。

晚期表现为极度的纤维化。

Notes:

1. Hashimoto thyroiditis [?θa????'da?t?s] n. 桥本甲状腺炎

2. lymphocytic [?l?mf?'sa?t?k] adj. 淋巴细胞的

3. echotexture [e??'tekst??] 回声特性

4. morphologic [?m?:f?'l?d??k] adj. 形态学(上)

来源:每天朗读一段医学影像学英语文章

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